By Earl J. Kirkland
Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy, second version, brings jointly various details on snapshot simulation. a useful source, this publication offers info on numerous tools for numerical computation of excessive answer traditional and scanning transmission electron microscope pictures. this article is going to function a useful gizmo for college students on the complicated undergraduate or graduate point, in addition to skilled researchers within the box.
This more suitable moment version comprises:
-descriptions of recent advancements within the field
-additional fabric on aberration corrected tools and confocal electron microscopy
-expanded and superior examples and sections to supply enhanced clarity
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Extra resources for Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy
If kβ is large then neither of these integrals can be done analytically and both must be done numerically (in two dimensions). The phase and amplitude transfer functions are shown in Figs. 8, respectively, using Scherzer defocus and the Scherzer aperture. The phase contrast transfer function is initially similar to the coherent transfer (see Fig. , when the image is incoherent there cannot be any interference to produce phase contrast). 5 3 Fig. 7 BF-CTEM transfer function for weak phase objects with increasing condenser angle βmax as a function of dimensionless spatial frequency K (Scherzer defocus and aperture αmax ).
This produces the smallest tails but increases the FWHM (minimum rms radius approx. 43(Cs λ 3 )1/4 ) to about twice that of the probe with Scherzer conditions. Scherzer conditions seem to be a compromise between a small full width half maximum and large tails. Mory et al.  have 54 3 Linear Image Approximations also considered the optimum probe defocus for STEM imaging and microanalysis. Intaraprasonk et al.  have discussed optimizing the probe with spherical aberration through fifth order.
Some of these new aberrations will be described next. There are a variety of ways to express the deviation δ of the wavefront from an ideal spherical wave (Fig. 9). For image points on the optic axis due to small (nonzero) angles with respect to the optic axis δ could be expanded in a double power series in angles αxn αym , where αx and αy are components of α in the x and y directions, respectively. For high resolution small lateral deviations (x and y) from the optic axis can be ignored. For example there are four third order terms with n + m = 3 of αx3 , αx2 αy , αx αy2 , and αy3 .