ATC-40 Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings by APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL


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OPTIMIZATION USING NONLINEAR SEARCH TECHNIQUES If I formulate the solar design problem as it naturally comes to me, it involves a lot of non-linear, non-smooth, and discontinuous functions in the calculation of life cycle cost, so linear programming techniques are hard to implement and abstract. Many search techniques have been devised to try to find an optimal value among non-linear equations. Three that I have experience with are exhaustive search, gradient-reduction method, and evolutionary method.

Making sure that intermittent and somewhat unpredictable solar energy delivery actually results in a commensurate savings of conventional energy requires some care in design and controls (in short, the conventional system must be modified and reprogrammed to step aside and let the solar energy system serve the demand first, and engage only if solar proves insufficient). Grid-Integration: Effects of Intermittent Solar Energy Sources on the Utility System Integration of solar energy systems into the larger utility grid is also a topic of much research currently.

The measure also required qualifying utilities to offer customers a minimum rebate of $2 per watt for solar electric generation, provided incentives for utilities to invest in renewable energy resources that provide net economic benefits to customers, and limited the retail rate impact of renewable energy resources to 1 percent of the total electric bill annually for each customer of a qualified retail utility. This measure plus the federal solar tax credits jump-started Colorado’s solar power industry.

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