Barycentric Calculus in Euclidean and Hyperbolic Geometry: A by Abraham Albert Ungar

By Abraham Albert Ungar

The notice barycentric is derived from the Greek note barys (heavy), and refers to heart of gravity. Barycentric calculus is a technique of treating geometry through contemplating some degree because the middle of gravity of yes different issues to which weights are ascribed. for that reason, particularly, barycentric calculus presents first-class perception into triangle facilities. This precise e-book on barycentric calculus in Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry presents an creation to the interesting and gorgeous topic of novel triangle facilities in hyperbolic geometry besides analogies they proportion with accepted triangle facilities in Euclidean geometry. As such, the booklet uncovers incredible unifying notions that Euclidean and hyperbolic triangle facilities percentage.

In his prior books the writer followed Cartesian coordinates, trigonometry and vector algebra to be used in hyperbolic geometry that's absolutely analogous to the typical use of Cartesian coordinates, trigonometry and vector algebra in Euclidean geometry. for that reason, robust instruments which are quite often on hand in Euclidean geometry grew to become on hand in hyperbolic geometry in addition, permitting one to discover hyperbolic geometry in novel methods. specifically, this new booklet establishes hyperbolic barycentric coordinates which are used to figure out quite a few hyperbolic triangle facilities simply as Euclidean barycentric coordinates are wide-spread to figure out a variety of Euclidean triangle facilities.

the quest for Euclidean triangle facilities is an previous culture in Euclidean geometry, leading to a repertoire of greater than 3 thousand triangle facilities which are recognized by way of their barycentric coordinate representations. the purpose of this publication is to begin a completely analogous hunt for hyperbolic triangle facilities that would develop the repertoire of hyperbolic triangle facilities supplied the following

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46) with the line parameter t1 ∈ R. The line L123 (t1 ) contains one of the three medians of triangle A1 A2 A3 . Invoking cyclicity, equations of the lines L123 , L231 and L312 , which contain, May 25, 2010 13:33 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in 18 ws-book9x6 Barycentric Calculus A2 MA1A2 PSfrag replacements A3 G = 13 (A1 + A2 + A3 ) MA MA1 A3 2A 3 G MA1 A2 = 12 (A1 + A2 ) MA1 A3 = 12 (A1 + A3 ) MA2 A3 = 12 (A2 + A3 ) A1 Fig. 3 The side midpoints M and the centroid G of triangle A1 A2 A3 in a Euclidean plane R2 .

155) Excircle Tangency Points Let A1 A2 A3 be a triangle in a Euclidean space Rn , with excircles centered at the points Ek , k = 1, 2, 3, and let the tangency point where the A3 excircle meets the triangle side A1 A2 be T33 , as shown in Fig. 11, p. 42. The tangency point T33 is the perpendicular projection of the point E3 on the line LA1 A2 that passes through the points A1 and A2 , Fig. 11. 76), p. 7, p. 154). 160) Now let T32 be the tangency point where the A3 -excircle meets the extension of the triangle side A1 A3 , as shown in Fig.

8 The Triangle Incircle, Incenter and Inradius. The triangle angle bisectors are concurrent. The point of concurrency, I, is called the incenter of the triangle. Here A1 A2 A3 is a triangle in a Euclidean n-space, Rn , and Tk is the point of tangency where the triangle incircle meets the triangle side opposite to vertex Ak , k = 1, 2, 3. 122), is called the triangle inradius. ¯13 and a ¯23 along with their magnitudes a The vectors a ¯13 and a ¯23 are shown in Fig. 8. The tangency point T3 where the incenter of triangle A1 A2 A3 meets the triangle side A1 A2 opposite to vertex A3 , Fig.

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