Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy by Dorothea Frede, Burkhard Reis

By Dorothea Frede, Burkhard Reis

The matter of physique and soul has an extended background that may be traced again to the beginnings of Greek tradition. The existential query of what occurred to the soul in the meanwhile of dying, no matter if and in what shape there's lifestyles after dying, and of the precise dating among physique and soul was once responded in several methods in Greek philosophy, from the early days to overdue Antiquity. The contributions during this quantity not just do justice to the breadth of the subject, in addition they disguise the complete interval from the Pre-Socratics to past due Antiquity. specific consciousness is paid to Plato, Aristotle and Hellenistic philosophers, that's the Stoics and the Epicureans.

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There are twenty-one uses of psychÞ in Herodotus, in about half of which (12) psychÞ has the meaning ‘life’, which I have illustrated above. In another 8 cases, however, the psychÞ is precisely the center of emotions in human beings. In three cases it is that in human beings with which they feel pain or grief at the loss of something or someone. 43). In four cases, it is that which makes us show courage or endurance in the face of misfortune. 14). 153). It is striking that Herodotus explicitly extends the possession of this sort of psychÞ to animals as well as men.

Clearly it is the ability to feel pain and the ability to express that pain in sounds, sounds moreover that reflect the personality of an individual. Nothing is said here about the puppy’s ability to think. It cannot do sums and count out the sums with an appropriate number of barks. What it can do is feel and express its feelings in an individual way. This psychÞ thus bears a strong resemblance to the psychÞ as a center of emotions and desires, which I argued above could be found in fragment 13 of Philolaus.

VP 31). Pythagoras is himself sometimes identified as such a daimôn (Iamb. VP 11, 30) just as he is sometimes identified as Apollo (Iamb. VP 30). L. 32), who has been shown not to provide reliable evidence for early Pythagoreanism (Burkert 1972, 53). The other says that “Pythagoras said many wise things about daimones and the immortality of the soul” (Iamb. VP 219). This pairing might suggest that daimones were involved in the doctrine of immortality of the soul, but it is also possible that daimones and the immortality of the soul were two distinct religious topics which Pythagoras discussed.

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