Psychology for Nurses: Theory and Practice by Byrne Anne And Don

By Byrne Anne And Don

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Difficulties with the oral stage may, for example, leave the individual with a dominant id and a subsequently impulsive personality, while problems during the anal stage may produce, in adult life, a rigidly compulsive individual dominated by an excessively strong superego. In more recent times, however, psychologists have found difficulties with this theoretical approach to the explanation of personality, largely because it is not open to empirical test under controlled conditions. Other theories, more closely derived from experimental data than from clinical observation, have supplanted the prominence of the psychodynamic approach, and the social learning theory of Albert Bandura has been foremost among these.

As a consequence, it may bear strongly on the patient's sense of well-being and emotional state and, through well understood mech- 30 Psychology for Nurses anisms of illness behaviour and stress, on the rate and success of patient recovery and rehabilitation. Finally, nurses must understand that they, too, are individuals whose behaviours, thoughts, attitudes and feelings are all governed by the same psychological mechanisms as those of their patients. Like all human beings, nurses will have interests, needs, fears, concerns, hopes, wishes, feelings of inadequacy and distress as well as of success and happiness, emotional limitations, uncertainties, ambitions and a desire to achieve, both for them and for their patients.

It means that the therapist must feel comfortable in accepting and admitting to feelings which adherence to convention might ordinarily suppress. The quality of genuineness is associated with openness and self-disclosure (Geldard, 1989). According to Prochaska (1979), Rogers originally believed that there was no necessity for therapists to speak openly of what they themselves felt to patients. It seemed necessary only that therapists not deceive patients or themselves. Later, however, he came to the conclusion that genuineness in therapists includes their self-expression, and many therapists have begun to follow Rogers' lead of directly expressing some of the emotion and meaning of their own feelings during therapeutic sessions.

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