By Alannah Tomkins, Steven King
This attention-grabbing learn investigates the adventure of English poverty among 1700 and 1900 and the ways that the negative made ends meet. The word 'economy of makeshifts' has usually been used to summarise the patchy, determined and infrequently failing ideas of the bad for cloth survival. within the negative of britain the various top, younger historians of welfare learn how benefits received from entry to universal land, mobilisation of kinship help, resorting to crime, and different marginal assets may possibly prop up suffering families. The essays try to clarify how and whilst the negative secured entry to those makeshifts and recommend how the stability of those options may well swap over the years or be transformed through gender, life-cycle and geography. This booklet represents the only most vital test in print to provide the English 'economy of makeshifts' with an outstanding, empirical foundation and to enhance the concept that of makeshifts from a obscure yet handy label to a extra detailed but inclusive definition.
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Additional resources for The Poor in England, 1700-1900: An Economy of Makeshifts
5, which maintains that income supplements did indeed have a role in the rising birth rate. 13 K. Williams, From Pauperism to Poverty (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981) see ch. 1 and especially p. 39; of course comprehensive, state-funded welfare, and other sweeping, structural measures such as a minimum wage, had been debated and been the subject of failed legislation before the 1940s, but without the critical momentum of political and popular support. 14 G. A. Oxley, Poor Relief in England and Wales 1601–1834 (Newton Abbot, David and Charles, 1974).
91 Historians of rural and industrial popular protest have also displayed a tangential interest in the economy of makeshifts given that unrest was frequently a reflection of challenges to traditional perquisites, work patterns, the withdrawal of access to certain resources or the decline of traditional obligations and relationships Introduction 23 which had been engendered by the presence and management of makeshift resources. 93 Family historians too have found it necessary to engage with strands of the economy of makeshifts.
Barrett surveys the contradictions in the existing literature before embarking on an assessment of the functionality of kin in six townships in the West Riding of Yorkshire 1700–1820. Family reconstitution data is linked to poor relief payments to show an unmistakable inverse relationship between presence of kin in a community and the receipt of poor relief, but it also exposes some of the subtleties in the family/parish support nexus. In these townships selected individuals with a high density of kin in the neighbourhood (which in this study was not mechanically defined as the township but included adjacent administrative blocks) took poor relief as a short-term aid, between the onset of a crisis and the emergence of effective support from families.